Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Are Vaccines Worth A Shot - Free Essay Example

Epidemics have been around for as long as time has been recorded. Plagues, viruses, and baterias have all taken advantage of the human body to weaken and destroy. However, as the times changed, so did medical science. Vaccines were soon invented and revolutionized the medical field, making once incurable diseases manageable and even preventable. Yet, despite the overwhelming good vaccinations have brought to advanced countries, many still question the authenticity and benefits of vaccines.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Vaccines help the body defend against a certain strain of virus or bacteria, and trains the body to respond should that strain appear (Dansby). Most vaccines will use a dead form of the virus or bacteria, allowing the immune system to create a defence known as memory cells. These cells will act as warning bells if a live strain enters the body, allowing the body to use the defences gained via the vaccination to destroy the virus. Some of the vaccinations have effects that last for an individuals lifespan, others may require additional shots called booster shots to remain effective (Ballard).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   With that being said, one may still be asking if the population truly needs vaccines. Currently, there are 14 diseases that are preventable by being vaccinated, which helps keep an epidemic from breaking out or spreading amongst the population. Polio and the black death are some examples of outbreaks that are no longer a threat as long as an individual is vaccinated. These diseases once had disastrous effects on humanity, and it is imperative to keep these at bay (Dansby).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The black death was a plague that invaded Europe, killing nearly one-third of the population in its wake. Medical science was nowhere near the point it is now, therefore allowing the disease to run rampant amongst hosts. This caused the infected to catch fever, have dark spots appear on the skin, infection to spread to other organs, and eventually led to coma or death. As science grew, a vaccine was discovered, and cases or outbreaks of the disease decreased in urban countries, numbers of infected dwindling to near zero (Peters).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Polio is another disease that has been nearly eradicated in urban areas due to vaccination. Polio was a disease that targeted the spinal cord of the infected, causing paralysis of limbs or even death in many cases. Eventually, a vaccine was introduced to the United States around 1955, and the U.S. has not had a case of the polio disease since around 1979 (CDC website).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The general health of many people is also influenced by the need for vaccine. Flu season is not nearly as bad as it could be because a vast majority of the population gets vaccinated to prevent it. This keeps individuals and those around them safe and healthy during times when the flu virus tends to strike hardest (Ballard).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     So, with all of this backing vaccines, is there really any doubt towards their benefits? There is still doubt, however, but it is very low in numbers. The main stem of this doubt is caused by a group of people known as anti-vaxxers. These are individuals who will refuse to vaccinate themselves or their children based on fears and doubts of the medical field and vaccinations. The beliefs and actions are proving to have an effect on the population, the evidence growing slightly every year.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Anti-vaxxers have a vast diversity of beliefs and reasons as to why they refuse to receive or allow vaccinations. Some believe that an improvement in sanitation and hygiene have caused a decrease in diseases rather than vaccines eliminating the risk, while others believe vaccines will not protect you based on the fact that if given a live vaccination, a vaccination containing a weakened version of the virus, there is a chance of getting a mild version of that disease. A few anti-vaxxers even claim vaccines will cause health defects such as autism if given to children. All of this stems from a distrust of science and/or the government, beliefs of politicians and doctors with only a desire for money blinding the anti-vaxxers (Healthline website).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Due to all of the beliefs anti-vaxxers hold, cases of once eradicated diseases have become apparent once more. Diseases like measles, whooping cough, and measles, are all very contagious and need to be vaccinated against to keep them from spreading and causing another large outbreak. However, with the rise of anti-vaxxers, these diseases are slowly seeping back into the population, infecting those who are unvaccinated and posing a threat to others around them (Dansby).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Opposing this side are the doctors and other medical professionals who offer a surmounting mount of evidence proving the anti-vaxxer side incorrect. These professionals show evidence in the form of studies, experiments, and journals. (Oxford website).

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Time Management And The Adult Learner Essay - 1909 Words

It’s not possible to control time, but we can manage the time we’re given. Time management is the ability to plan and control how we spend the hours in our day to effectively accomplish our goals. For college students, especially freshmen who may be left on their own for the first time, or the adult learner, who has additional family and work requirements to juggle, good time management is a necessity. Studies cite poor time management as a major contributor of college dropout rates, and without a good time management skill set, productivity can falter, job opportunities can be lost, or as those in college know, grades can suffer. Proper time management helps us achieve our goals, whether they be job, grade, or life related, and without this skill set, it’s impossible to juggle classroom, homework, family, and leisure time, due not to the ability of one to learn, but the ability of one to properly budget their time. Those most at risk are college freshmen an d the adult learner. Until moving away to college, life had a definite structure for the college freshmen. The family reinforced what and when things needed done, and high school was structured in a timely and orderly fashion, but as young adults enter college, they realize a new found freedom from controls, and that they now face the daunting task of choosing their own course of action to reach a demanding set of goals. According to studies, these goals are largely going unmet. According to a study ofShow MoreRelatedChallenges Of Time Management As An Adult Learner1019 Words   |  4 PagesManaging Time as an Adult Learner Over the last several years, adult learners have become increasingly common inside the institutions of higher education. This is because, many of these individuals are returning to school in order to be more competitive in the job market. As, it is demanding specialized skills and the ability to adapt with different challenges employers are facing. (Newbaker, 2012) Evidence of the can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Student ClearinghouseRead MoreEssay Time Management and Adults Learners1043 Words   |  5 PagesTime Management and Adults Learners Time Management and Adults Learners Life is complicated and it becomes harder as people develop into adulthood and inherit new responsibilities. Attending school as an adult learner is a big challenge and time management is something that every student must know and be efficient at in order to successfully complete their degrees. This paper explains the different adjustments that adult students must make to achieve their desired goals, especiallyRead MoreStudy Skills: Managing Time as an Adult Learner1408 Words   |  6 PagesSkills: Managing Time as an Adult Learner The potential for learning is active throughout the course of ones lifespan. Academic learning is often associated with adolescence and early adulthood; however, adults are also compelled to go back to school to further their education in order to gain more employable skills, change their career path, or to fulfill a personal goal. Although adult learners are just as capable as understanding new information as younger learners, the adult learner typically hasRead MoreManaging Time As An Adult Learner1485 Words   |  6 PagesManaging time as an adult learner There might not be a better decision than going back to school as an adult. This is particularly because one has the opportunity of enhancing their career and accomplishing their lifelong goals. The choice of going back to school as an adult is thus an easy decision. Despite the fact that reaching this decision is easy, following through the decision is the most difficult part. Difficult. 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In addition to the demands of their fulltime or part-time jobs, adult learners often have to attend to other responsibilities including but not limited to child care and other familial obligations. This text clearly demonstratesRead MoreEssay on EDU500Assnmt 1 Defining Learning Environment1480 Words   |  6 Pagesall over the world. The secret to success of such companies lies from the foundation that was laid down by the founders of the company in the attempt to ensure that the company becomes a success. Foundation includes the company mission, vision, management structure, selection of an excellent location, training and development and the involvement in activities promoting Corporate Social Responsibility. The study takes into consideration an organization by the name Old Excellent Company Limited. TheRead MoreAttending School As An Adult Learner1097 Words   |  5 Pages Deciding to attend school as an adult learner, is by far the most challenging obstacle an adult learner can do. Adults looking to advice in their education or their career look to attend school to achieve their goals. It is a demanding, daunting task to figuring out just what you want to study, where you want to study at, and how to attend classes. With so many options available today, where do you begin? Knowing the options can truly make choosing a school, program, or way to attend classes anRead MoreEssay about Traditional Learning Content1378 Words   |  6 Pagesof helping adults learn† and focus on the adult learner (Knowles, 1980, p. 43). Knowles published six assumptions about the adult learner. The adult self-concept moves from dependent to self-directing. An adult has many life experiences which is a great source to the adult to empower learning. An adult’s social role is related to the readiness of the adult to learn. Adults are more problem centered as t hey mature. Motivations for adults are internal rather than external and adults need to knowRead MoreWhat Are the Role and Responsibilities of Teacher? Essay1411 Words   |  6 PagesSo every teacher has to know which role he is applying in his class room, roll could be different depend on the circumstances ,like as which age group, are they normal people or are they special needs people or are they teenage people or are they adult people. Similarly every teacher has got responsibilities for his working place and working environment following the institutional procedures and policies. 1.1 Summarise key aspects of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relating

Monday, May 18, 2020

Rice brokerage firm - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3813 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Introduction and historical background Brief description of proposed entrepreneurial venture The venture into consideration is a rice brokerage firm which is a service providing firm regarding selling and purchasing of rice to and from different traders and rice mill owners. This firm will serve as a middleman and do not require investment in purchasing rice but this firm will charge 0.5% commission from each buyer and seller for a single transaction. The above said commission will be charged on account of providing services to rice traders and rice mill owners. Context of the organization The business of rice brokerage firm lies in the service industry. The nature of rice brokerage firm is to facilitate people related to rice business to search for buyers and sellers of rice. This firm is aimed at providing best level of services to the clients while providing them value in every service they are seeking for. There is a huge demand of rice in Pakistan and all around the world, and Pakistan produces enough rice to meet domestic rice needs and is able to export as well. Rice is an essential part of Pakistani meals, thats why consumer preferences is still there and they are ready to buy rice at prices that were never before. It is obvious that rice business and its industry will not end-up easily despite high rate of inflation. If domestic people eliminate rice from their lunch or dinner menu or switch to another commodity, the global demand will still be there because people around world like Basmati which is a product of Pakistan. This means that business of rice within Pakistan seems to be a still growing business with profitable opportunities for entrepreneurs. To have a start-up in the rice business, becoming a rice broker is a good option because trade facilitator are always at the safest edge of any business with a minimum investment of PKR: 10,000/- (in this case). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Rice brokerage firm" essay for you Create order Brief history of the industry Service industry is always there since the very start of every business in any industry. My firm is also in the service industry because this firm facilitates the clients trading in same commodity, which is rice, to get information and availability of rice in the market. When rice mill owners process the rice obtained from landlords in raw form to the finished product, it is then required to be supplied to wholesaler and other traders. To lessen the gap of communication and to ease the supply of rice to different ends of the chain brokerage firms are required. And, such services are demanded by many such like businesses to minimize overhead costs of different distribution channels. Information about economy and different trends Rice is vital cash crop and is one of the major export items of Pakistan. It accounted for 5.9 percent of value added sector and 1.3 percent of GDP in FY09. Pakistan grows ample quantity of rice to meet its domestic requirements and also export the high quality rice around the world. The production soared by a commendable 25 percent that helped Pakistan earn sizeable foreign exchange revenue. Rice exports accounted for nearly 11.21 percent of total export receipts FY09 and growers have achieved a bumper production of rice (6.4 million tons) so far in this crop year. Rice harvest was significantly higher than estimated domestic consumption of 2.5 million tons as growers were encouraged by higher rice price in international market following imposition of ban on rice exports by competing countries. Current status of the rice brokerage firms Every year Pakistan produces a decent quantity of rice and it contributes to major part of our country exports. Taking into consideration this fact, there are more and more people entering into this business because this business can be started with an investment of less than PKR 10,000/- and it is within the reach of common man nowadays. Another reason for the still growing business of rice brokerage is that there are wonderful growth opportunities and diversification of business in the field of exporting commodities to different parts of the world and there are examples of such successful people too in the present market have started from a commission agent to a successful rice exporter and rice mill owners, and hence successful entrepreneurs. So, people found this business very much profitable and most of people are still entering into this business. Aim of the service It is reasonable to say here that everybody in rice business wants to purchase and sell rice at his/her doorstep and there is a need to provide the service of brokerage firm to fulfill that need. Most of the times, it is difficult for rice mill owners to go into the market to search for buyers and it incurs a cost to that mill owners, so they prefer to contact brokers like us to search for buyers because those brokers have already contacts of buyers and their requirement in the market accordingly. This approach saves time and cost of every person involved in this business from rice mill owners to buyers to exporters. In order to provide up-to-date information about market prices of rice to traders and mill owners and to ease the process of searching for buyers and sellers is surmised by me as a good opportunity to start a business with a much lesser investment and greater growth opportunities. List of services to be provided Up-to-date information about prices of rice to clients Quality check-up of rice being bought and sold by client by randomly checking samples from the lot Making rice available to clients at best prices SWOT analysis of rice brokerage business Strengths Low investment Easy to operate ROI is high Weaknesses Ease of entry High competition Low sustainability No consistency Opportunities Diversification International trade opportunities Threats Forward and backward integration by major players in the industry Ease of entry into the business and competitor analysis There is a lot of competition in rice trade business because there is no barriers to entry this business. There is tough competition among all players in this business who provide brokerage services to rice traders as this can be done by anyone who can just coordinate between his/her clients. The only thing that matters in this area is trust and relationship building. This can only be made stronger by providing credible services and delivering on promises you have made to your clients because this will be the only differentiating factor that will set you apart from the competitors. However, there is a lack of value added services in the offerings of current brokers in the market of rice business which creates a gap in the area of this business which can be filled by smart entrepreneurs by putting creative destruction into work. This could be a challenging as well as risky task to stand out in competition in such business where most of the major players run their organization in typical seth-way, but when there is a risk there is an opportunity and if it is seen as an opportunity then an entrepreneur has done almost half of its work. Mission To serve rice buyers and sellers through continuing efforts in bringing clients the very best which is available today and ease their process of prospecting. Providing them value in our services by satisfying their requirements of rice, meeting deadline of lead time, consulting them about changing business environment and placing emphasis on trading properly and making money for clients. Vision To become a leader in commodity brokerage firm business and earn loyalty of our clientele base by assisting them in becoming more successful in their commodity trading through continuous improvement in our services by innovation, professionalism and integration. Management considerations Personal expertise Strengths Problem seeker/ proactive Experience Believe in black and white Leadership skills Communication skills Negotiator Ability to make fun oriented environment Straight forward Multi linguistic Weaknesses Cant wait Taking too much time in evaluating alternatives Do not socialize Straight forward Organizational design The proposed design for the venture is organic because of the smaller size and continuously changing outside environment. This is so because the success of the business depends upon the person who is at front end with the client and that person should be given freedom to customize services according to clients needs coping up with the challenges of uncertain external environment. Organizational culture Innovation and risk taking is very high and it will enable us to outperform others in the present market situation There will be a high degree of emphasis on attention to detail to get work perfectly done because a little mistake can lose out our credibility High degree of outcome orientation is entailed within organizations culture to achieve objectives, milestones and vision People orientation will be optimal because founder of this organization will be at front face from the very start of this business to build and maintain the customer base Team orientation is highly appreciated to carry out operations smoothly A blend of cooperative and competitive strategies will be used to sustain and survive into the industry while embedding a bit of higher level of aggressiveness within organizations culture Stability within the organization will be optimal will be taking into account innovation and progress in order to imply a proactive approach Staffing requirements A lawyer will be hired on annual basis for filing sales tax and income tax returns at the end of each fiscal year. Apart from this, a quality control checker will be employed at a monthly salary of PKR: 10,000/- whose responsibility will be to check quality of rice being bought and sold by our clients and to assure them for timely delivery of that quality of rice as demanded by the clients. Operational management issues The quality of services offered to the clients should be maintained to avoid any disappointment and shrinkage of customer base. Following dimensions of service quality are taken into consideration to maintain the consistency in our services: Timeliness: meeting deadlines of all clients Courtesy: giving clients a â€Å"wow† experience Consistency: same and even better quality of service every time Convenience: providing all services at clients doorstep Completeness: taking feedback after successful completion of each job Accuracy: never making client unhappy by doing and providing non professional services Inventory management methods There is no inventory management in the proposed venture because this venture provides no-goods services and do not invest in purchasing commodities, hence there is no inventory. Equipments required Basic equipments required for this venture are personal computer, printer, fax machine and telephone set. Marketing considerations Marketing plan In the commodity brokerage business, there is a high need of marketing to let people know that a new venture is established in this industry providing value added services other than the core activity of assisting and facilitating clients in buying and selling process of rice. The marketing of this firm focuses more on relationship building, communicating value and delivering on trustworthy promises to clients. Segmentation approaches Demographic Industry type There are no barriers to entry in the rice industry because it is a commodity market which comes into the market every year with no limitations on purchasing and selling this commodity. It is a still growing industry and people are still coming into this industry to settle their business. There are very least government restrictions on this industry because rice contribute to major part of our country exports. Company size Due to fewer barriers to entry, everybody regardless of what capital s/he has in the pocket can enter in this industry and can trade rice. Based on this fact, there are too many variations in company size. There are firms which supply rice to small scale retailers and there are firms which are rice mill owners and large scale exporters. The company size may vary from PKR: 100,000/- to PKR: 100 million worth of firm. Location Almost all rice traders do their business in the area of New Chaali (behind I.I Chundrigarh road) and some of them are in Jodia Bazaar. Rice mills are situated throughout the province of Sind but they fulfill the requirements of nearby areas. The rice mills in the area of Gharo and Hyderabad are major supplier of rice to Karachi. Most of the mill owners have offices in Karachi at the above said areas. Operating variables Technology There is no such technology employed as standard in the rice industry but different firms in this industry are using computer software to maintain their books of records, accounting, billing and other related activities. For a private limited company it is necessary to employ software to maintain operational and non-operational activities. For the rice mill owners, new mills are being set up with latest improved technology equipments/machinery to do rice processing in a more efficient and cost effective manner. Customer capabilities Customer capabilities vary from customer to customer. The trade volume varies from 0.5 metric tons to tens of metric tons of rice. Purchasing approaches Purchasing department Some large scale rice trading firms have separate purchasing department which have a huge annual turnover as compared to others, while small scale traders do not have separate purchase department. Most of the firms in rice industry are seth owned and they run their business in a typical seth way. They are responsible for all buying and selling activities. However, accounting activities are assigned to other employees but activities such as purchasing, negotiation, making payments and collecting payments are done by seth himself. Purchasing policies Almost all buyers purchase rice on credit, there are very few who purchase on cash. In Pakistan rice industry, rice buyers make payments to the suppliers/sellers within 30 days but on an average the credit period may extend to 45 days. Purchasing criteria There is no specific purchasing criterion for buying rice. Rice is being bought and sold in the market in a much simpler way, just make a phone call to a broker, s/he will note down buyers requirements, the broker will arrange rice for the client and negotiate on payment terms and conditions with the buyer, receives advance amount of money to conform the deal, finalize the deal and supply the rice to buyers warehouse. Situational factors Urgency For rice exporters, the concerned bank personnel, through which international letter of credit (ILOC) is opened and maintained by importer sitting abroad, checks the quality of rice being exported to assure whether the quality of rice meets the requirements of the importer. If those quality controllers reject the rice for not meeting the required quality, then in order to avoid disappointed customers and delayed shipments exporters rush to the rice market and rice brokers to fulfill the order of the importer. At this instance, targeting such exporters who make mistakes in performing quality control check of rice may be profitable for rice brokerage venture. Size of order If rice market falls short of rice then every trader will buy rice to stock it and then sell at higher rates to make more profits. This is very critical moment in the market and most of the traders want to take advantage of such opportunity, but such decision are based upon environmental scanning and quantity of rice exported versus domestic consumption and availability. In such scenario the size of order increases from normal orders that rice traders used to place for purchasing rice in normal situations. Personal characteristic Buyer-seller similarity There are a lot of similar characteristics among the traders in the rice industry. A buyer wants to buy and a seller wants to sell and the business goes on. The basic similarity among them is that everybody has to agree upon a specific on going market rate. Attitude towards risk There is no higher level of risk involved in the rice trade business because this is a commodity business. The rates of rice do fluctuate on daily basis but not at a higher level. The major increase in rates of rice occurs due to higher exports local/domestic market fall short of rice. Risk is involved when rice is sold at credit and buyer becomes defaulter in making payments to the supplier/seller. All rice traders are aware of risks involved in this business but they believe that trust is the key driving factor of this business and they trust each other despite of having knowledge of all risks involved. Loyalty There is no brand involved in the rice business to which loyalty can be associated. Business people in this industry are loyal to traders who are providing best services to their clients rather than just selling rice which can be done by providing value in their services. Target market selection strategy The rice brokerage venture will adapt full market coverage strategy to meet the needs of all traders of rice because no such customer group is identified in the market that do not want or need to buy or sell rice to run their business. Marketing mix strategies Service description The service to be provided by the proposed venture is to facilitate buyer and seller to look for each other, to fulfill their business needs of rice and making rice available for them at best prices so that they may run their business profitably. The service charges are 0.5% of the overall amount of the rice being bought and sold, which will be charged from each client for a single deal transaction. This venture also caters to the rice mill owners by helping them to look for potential buyers of their processed rice. The said venture will also provide its services to rice growers and so that farmers and landlords may sell rice to rice mill owners at best rates and after processing the rice will be passed on to different channels for furthering its supply into the market. According to product lifecycle, the rice brokerage business is at growth stage. Pricing The cost of service to be charged from clients is based on going-rate pricing strategy. This pricing strategy is chosen for this venture because all competitors in the rice brokerage service industry are charging same rate of commission from buyers and sellers, therefore premium pricing and other pricing strategies will not be feasible for this type of venture. The value that client will get after using our services will help us to build and maintain our clientele base through word of mouth marketing. At the initial stage, the most feasible pricing strategy will be going-rate pricing in order to survive and maximizing sales growth. Promotion All the promotional strategies for this venture focus on partnering with clients, value added selling, consultative selling and building long term sustainable relationship with the clients. All advertising will be done by personal visits to buyers and sellers premises so that interpersonal relationships can be strengthened by personal selling. To make promotional activities strategies more effective, efficient and result oriented we will try to concentrate on customers, preparing ourselves for gathering information about competition, convince the clients about our services by providing guarantee and by delivering on the promises, offering benefits to the clients and handle objections of the clients by listening to them about our offered services which will help us to mould our services according to each client needs. Place Overall marketing strategy Nowadays, business persons have become smart enough to opt for forward and backward integration. Traders buying and selling at large scale do not necessarily engage a rice broker for their trading operations. In such scenario, creating a place in the industry and market place can be a challenging and trivial task. To gain success, following strategies will be implemented for the business of rice brokerage business. Strategy 1 Continuous visits to large and small scale rice traders for prospecting and give them information about advantages associated with services offered by a rice brokerage firm while providing them value in each service, cutting down costs in warehousing and storage of rice, making process of looking for buyers and sellers easy and enabling them to meet each business entity annual revenue targets and turnover goals. Strategy 2 Creating a database of all existing and potential clients to keep individuals up-to-date record of all previous transactions, their feedback about services they have received which will enable us to take corrective measures to further improve on strategy and level of service. Tactics Regularly monitoring and evaluating of current market activities and to take actions accordingly in order to survive in the challenging business environment. Legal considerations and business structure Type of firm The legal form of entrepreneural venture into consideration is sole propreitorship because there are no complex legal requirements of establishing a rice brokerage venture. At the very start of establishing such service providing venture, we need a high level of direct control over operations and processes of business to convince and satisfy our clients about our services. Terms and conditions Goods are delivered at owners risk Seller of rice isnot responsible for any kind of unpleasant event regarding delivery of rice to buyers destination 50% of service charges, which is commission in this case, will be charged at the rate of 0.5% of trade amount from each party, and the rest will be paid by the parties after successful execution and completion of the deal. Transportation charges are to be borne by the buyer Payment agreement will be carried out according to mutual understanding of both parties The broker itself is not responsible for quality of rice not meeting buyers quality needs and requirements. However, we will try our level best to assure our clients about delivery of rice of reqired quality as decided at the time of finalizing the deal Buyout A successful entrepreneur is the person who plans for a good profitable future and not forgetting to plan for coping up with challenges due to changing external environment. Therefore, in the worst case scenario if the propreitor end up doing business with heavy losses then it is easy to exit from this business by shutting down the firm. Despite increased effective tax rate, unlimited liability and difficulties in raising funds, sole propreitorship form of organization still seems to be feasible for this venture. Legal documents The basic legal documents for a sole propreitor venture are; National Tax Number (NTN) Sales Tax Registration Number (STRN) Tax considerations Financial considerations Startup costs SOURCES OF CAPITAL Owners Investment (name and percent ownership) PKR Raj Kumar 100% ownership 1,635,000 Total Investment 1,635,000 STARTUP EXPENSES Capital Equipment List PKR Furniture (tables and chairs) 15,000 Equipment (computer, printer, fax telephone) 18,650 Fixtures (fans and lighting) 7,000 Total Capital Equipment 40,650 Location and Admin Expenses PKR Rental 15,000 Advance deposit 180,000 Telephone connection charges 600 Mobile phone 1,200 Stationary 2,580 Total Location and Admin Expenses 199,380 Advertising and Promotional Expenses PKR Advertising 10,000 Travel/entertainment 10,000 Total Advertising/Promotional Expenses 20,000 Reserve for Contingencies 20,000 Working Capital SUMMARY STATEMENT Sources of Capital PKR Owners investments 1,635,000 Total Source of Funds 1,635,000 Startup Expenses PKR Capital equipment 40,650 Location/administration expenses 199,380 Advertising/promotional expenses 20,000 Contingency fund 20,000 Working capital Total Startup Expenses 280,030

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Foreign Direct Fdi ( Fdi ) - 846 Words

In recent times, there has been increased attention devoted to the role that foreign direct in-vestment (FDI) could play in ameliorating the general dearth of capital available for investment in most developing countries. Even though FDI is primarily meant to bridge the gap between the desired level of gross national investment and the prevailing amount of domestic savings and in-vestment, it also results in positive externalities that often serve as a catalyst in the overall eco-nomic growth and development of the country that receives it. The inflow of FDI is known to yield indirect benefits, such as enhanced employment opportunities, the improvement of the bal-ance of payments (BOP) account situation due to the increased availability of foreign exchange in an economy, and perhaps, most importantly, the prospect of the transfer of technology, manageri-al skills and other intangible knowledge to the host country which would allow domestic firms to improve their collective profitabil ity and performance (Elijah, 2006). On a global basis, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows increased by about 35 percent to $345 billion between the second and third quarter of 2013 after a decrease of 32 percent between the first and second quarter of the same period. Despite this increment in the third quarter, total flows for the first three quarters of 2013, at $977 billion, were 4 percent below the $1 trillion ob-served over the same period in 2012. This sluggish performance would seem toShow MoreRelatedForeign Direct Investment ( Fdi )1669 Words   |  7 PagesIn today’s increasingly globally integrated business world, foreign direct investment (FDI) â€Å"provides a means for creating direct, established and long-lasting links between economies,† according to the 2008 Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment (OECD, 2008, p. 14). Foreign direct investment (FDI) is defined as â€Å"an investment made to acquire lasting interest in e nterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor,† by theRead MoreForeign Direct Investment ( Fdi )1329 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction 1.1 Research Background Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) refers to an investment made by a firm or entity based in one country into a firm or entity based in another country. The investing firm may make its overseas investment in many forms, like mergers and acquisition or building new facilities in overseas (Hannon Reddy, 2012). Thus, FDI have been a significant driver of economic development in China since the start of the Reform and Opening Policy in 1978 – 1979. Since the startRead MoreForeign Direct Investment ( Fdi )1557 Words   |  7 Pagescame together and eliminated trade barriers, which enabled Corporation’s to begin foreign direct investment (FDI) in other nations. This resulted, corporations transform into Multinational Enterprises. The movie â€Å"The Grand Seduction† shows the powerful impact FDI’s can have for an economy. This essay will analyze the movie and the following statement â€Å"The attraction and retention of foreign direct investment (FDI) is a comp lex and multifaceted activity for a number of different stakeholders†. ThisRead MoreForeign Direct Investment ( Fdi )1445 Words   |  6 Pagesconsiderable benefits from international domain. The concept of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been gain huge prominences in the recent years for getting considerable benefits for the economy and overall development of a nation. The importance of FDI has been attaining huge prominences among the economic as well as business domain. FDI is one kind of investment that influences the overall economic functioning within a country. 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Understanding Societal Wealth and Inequality Thesis...

AYOMIPO MADEIN A00014571 WRI 102 FINAL PAPER UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL WEALTH AND INEQUALITY THESIS STATEMENT ON WHAT CAN HELP SOCIETY (HYBRID OF CAPITALISM AND COMMUNISM) WHAT IS WEALTH On a general basis, wealth is an accumulation of physical entities which hold great importance to us. These entities are objects such as money, land, jewelries, gold, precious stones and so much more. It is also a means were by people grade themselves or attain superiority over others. Wealth comes with power, prestige, honor, and integrity. Wealth is a very important tool in a society and that is the very means of survival in today’s world. In Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory, he speaks of â€Å"survival of the fittest†. In today’s modern world when fittest†¦show more content†¦They went into contracts with them and the contract entailed that if they didn’t pay at the designated time with interest, they would be forced to pay up their debt with labor which meant they would become slaves to them. This was called bonded service or indentured service. This was a common psychology the rich used to oppress the poor and this continued from one generation to the next. In some circumstances if the father and the mother cannot pay up even after death, the child (ren) take the debt and work for the rich person till the debt is paid. This occurred in the United States of America until Slavery was based on color. In some areas in Ghana when debt was not paid in time, the rich person will collect the girl child of that family and she becomes his own until he is satisfied with her probably when she is in her fifties. Nothing was done about this, girls suffered because of private wealth. People used it to their advantage and people suffered. This form of slavery continued in Ghana until a militant president broke the bond or contract. Now those girls who were taken from their house at an early age live in shame, they walk nude on the streets of Ghana because they have been stripped of their purity at an early age. Stratification of a society is the after effect of private wealth. Stratification of societies has evolved through the ages from slavery to caste to estate and to class system which is the modern dayShow MoreRelatedGlobalization and It Effects on Cultural Integration: the Case of the Czech Republic.27217 Words   |  109 Pagescentury. However, there is the difficulty of the world to come up with a single and uniform definition. This is because, so many people doubt if the happenings in the world today are as a result of globalization. Thus, due to these global differences of what this concept actually is about, globalization has grown to involve aspects not only of economy, but politics and other socio-cultural issues. Globalization affects almost every human being, this is because the process of globalization is said to haveRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Imp ortant Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesLandscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American

Notes for Institutional Theory Free Essays

The aim of this essay is to explore the response of organisations when confronting with institutional pressures. The essay is organised as follow. Firstly, some concepts as well as explanation related to institutional theory will be introduced. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes for Institutional Theory or any similar topic only for you Order Now Then, this essay will define and explain the conception of legitimacy and the connection between legitimacy and institutional process. Thirdly, the strategic responses of organisations to deal with the pressures from institutional process and an example of response in terms of institutional control will be examined. Institutional theory is a concept that emphasizes the existence of some norms, values and beliefs of the society which organisations conform with. And the process of conformity called institutionalisation is reflected in the structures and practices of organisations (Powell DiMaggio, 1991). According to Oliver (1991), institutional theory emphasizes more specifically on the pressures and constraints from the institutional environment which is one of its two issues addressed (the other one is technical pressures). Institutions here include the state, professions, interest group as well as public opinion (Scott, 1987b). These institutions have interconnected and interdependent relationships with organisations, as the behaviours of organisation are restricted by outside pressures exerted by institutions. In order to survive, organisations have to force themselves to adapt to the environment. So, they have no other choice but to make their behaviours consistent with external norms and rules. After discussing the environment perspective of institutional theory, the next section will regard motives of conformity as the point of departure. Institutional theory demonstrates that stability and legitimacy is what organisations to attain (Powell DiMaggio, 1983; Oliver, 1991). In terms of obtaining stability, institutional theory can explain why organisations conform to external rules, norms and beliefs, not because of the direct link to a positive outcome but organisations would be unthinkable to do otherwise. In other words, this consistency may not be driven by the objective of interest maximisation, but by preconscious acceptance of institutionalisation. Uniform rules, norms and beliefs produce less contradiction Oliver (1991). Due to attempt to obtain stability, organisations would like to draw experience from pre-existing audiences within the current external environment and imitate those organisational structures, decision-making mode and so on to response to the external pressures. Before regarding obtaining legitimacy as the other motive of conformity, it is necessary to define the concept of legitimacy. There are many different definitions of legitimacy with varying degrees of specificity (Suchman, 1995). Legitimacy refers to an array of established cultural accounts made by organisations to provide explanations for its existence (Powell DiMaggio, 1991). Another specific definition is that legitimacy is a generalized perception that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, and beliefs. In addition, there are three types of legitimacy, which are pragmatic legitimacy, moral legitimacy and cognitive legitimacy (Suchman, 1995). After explaining some conception of legitimacy, the next section will focus on the connection between legitimacy and institutional process. As every parts of organisation is constructed and interpenetrated by external institutions as well as culture can determine how the organization is built, how it is run, and, simultaneously, how it is understood and evaluated, legitimacy empowers organizations by making them seem natural and meaningful. So legitimacy is critical to organisation survival. Then it can also imply the easiest approach to gain legitimacy, which suggests organisations to adapt to the existed institutional context and adjust their structures to fit with the existed norms, rules and beliefs. This point is just consistent with the emphasis of the institutional theory. So gaining legitimacy is a more significant reason why organisations accept institutional process. When confronting with institutional pressures, acquiescence will be the most probable response taken by organisations. However, if anticipated legitimacy is low, organisations may have different responses to institutionalisation, like compromising on the requirements for conformity, avoiding the conditions that make conformity necessary, denying the requirements that are advised to conform, or even manipulate the criteria of conformity. As can be seen, there are five kinds of strategic responses that organisations may conduct to institutional process, which are acquiescence, compromise, avoid, defy and manipulate(Oliver, 1991). Organisations may have different responses to variable cause, control, context, constituents and content and to even different degree of the same issue. For example, in the terms of institutional control, legal coercion or government mandates and voluntary diffusion are two processes pressures exerted to organisations (Powell DiMaggio, 1983; Oliver, 1991). How to cite Notes for Institutional Theory, Essay examples

Control Mechanism Essay Example For Students

Control Mechanism Essay Control Mechanisms and the Starbucks Corporation The purpose of this paper is to identify four types of control mechanisms, feed-forward, concurrent, feedback, and financial, and their application in the Starbuck Corporation. The control mechanisms are compared and contrasted along with determining the effectiveness of these control mechanisms, and examining the positive and negative reactions. Finally, students will explain how these controls affect the four functions of management. Control Mechanisms Every business needs to have controls in place to remain competitive and survive in business. Without controls, the company would operate in chaos for a short period before the business collapses. When operating a business, a manager needs to understand the different control types; bureaucratic, market, and clan. Within each of these control types, control mechanisms exist that define the type of control used. Feed-forward Feed-forward is the control mechanism that establishes guidelines for future events and is proactive rather than reactive. By planning future events within a business, less chaos or fires will need to be put out. It also allows regular employees to make decisions without needing managerial approval. Concurrent Concurrent control mechanisms are those that take place in real-time. With the growing use of technology, concurrent mechanisms are the most prolific mechanism in any organization. In the case of Starbucks, technology allows managers to monitor outflow, product consumption, trends, etc. Feedback The feedback control mechanism takes place after an event. Once a problem or solution has been recognized, the information flows from one person to another. If it is a problem that has been acknowledged then the feedback is given promptly and then in writing for future use in discipline or training. If it is a solution that has been noticed, the solution is documented and implemented as a new procedure. Financial Financial controls exist in every organization so money flow can be monitored. This can take place at the lowest level, the cash register at Starbucks, or at the highest level, the analysis of financial statements. The financial control also can be monitored by a manager when determining the need for staffing employees during certain periods throughout the day. Compare/Contrast When discussing the four control mechanisms, their basic commonalities are that they are used in a cycle. The time in which the mechanisms are used is a difference. Another difference is that they are used for different types of control within the organization; however, feed-forward, concurrent, and feedback all have a direct relationship with the financial control mechanism. Application and Effectiveness For nearly 40 years, Starbucks has grown into a large and successful business. Maintaining control is vital for survival. Control systems are designed to eliminate idiosyncratic behavior and keep employees directed toward achieving the goals of the firm† (Bateman Snell, 2009, p. 603). Feed-forward control is used to maintain growth in a very competitive and complex marketplace. Starbucks does extensive research on factual information, like how much coffee is being consumed in a certain areas. This and other research will lower the chance of failure, fluxes in the economy, and trends in the marketplace. A very proactive organization, Starbucks is very effective at feed-forward control. For example, their commitment to ethically sourcing and roasting coffee is one of many reasons for success. According to Jim Donald, CEO of Starbucks, â€Å"store visits are a fundamental part of concurrent control† (Bateman Snell. 2009. p. 580). For example, the CEO of Starbucks is a firm believer of visiting with managers and front-line workers to monitor properly the corporation’s standings. This concurrent control enables the executives to obtain firsthand information of the employees’ and customers’ experiences. For example, Starbucks introduced their products in grocery stores in 1998 with the understanding that consumers wanted the ability to brew the world-known coffee in their homes. The information gained from concurrent controls enables Starbucks to keep a pulse on the heart of their business. Today, Starbucks is second only to Caribou in market capitalization (Yahoo, 2010). Feedback control happens after every event and helps Starbucks stay within acceptable standards. Starbucks takes pride in their ability to use feedback to be creative, innovative, and responsive to their stakeholders. Biff is the antithesis of Bernard EssayThe concurrent control has a direct effect on controlling because it involves directing, monitoring, and fine tuning performance to ensure the plans are being carried out properly to achieve the organizational goals (Bateman Snell, 2009). Conclusion Starbucks is very passionate about achieving their goals and objectives by strong management functions. These functions of management and control mechanisms are used by Starbucks, which is committed to doing business responsibly and focuses on earning the trust and respect of their customers, partners, and neighbors. Effective in all aspects, Starbucks is an organization in which many other companies should follow. Starbucks considers ethics, the environment, and the community as an inspiration to achieve their goals through a strong core of managers (Starbucks Coffee, 2010). References Bateman, T. S. , Snell, S. A. (2009). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world. 8th edition. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/TOC. aspx? assetdataid=0dd00b95-d78d-40a8-bf5e-3f72f654d901assetmetaid=f65d6fdb-d2b7-4710-8429-2e86eeb1129c. Droege, S. (2006). Management Control. In M. H. Helms (Ed. ), Encyclopedia of Management (5th ed. , pp. 490-492). Detroit: Gale. Ishikawa, A. , Smith, C. H. (1972). A feedforward control system for organizational planning and control. Abacus , 8 (2), 163-180. Starbucks Coffee. (2010). Company profile. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://assets. starbucks. com/assets/company-profile-feb10. pdf Starbucks Coffee. (2010). Newsroom. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://news. starbucks. com/news/ Starbucks Coffee. (2010). Timeline. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from